Alcohol use disorder and alcohol dependence syndrome are two names of alcoholism for problematic alcohol use. Medical model defines alcoholism as having two or more following symptoms such as; drinking large amount of alcohol  over a long time period, having difficulty cutting down the quantity, time consumption in acquiring and drinking alcohol, alcohol as strongly desired, failure of fulfilling responsibilities, social issues, health related problems, withdrawal occurs when stopping and increasing alcohol tolerance. Alcohol use can influence all parts of the body but mostly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas, and immune system. According to a research conducted by Room, Babor and Rehm on alcohol and public health explored that alcohol consumption is linked with increased mortality and morbidity. Moreover approximately 4% of all diseases are globally attributable to or associated with alcohol use. Drinking during pregnancy is fatal for baby. Usually women are more sensitive to physical and mental harms of alcohol than do men.

Muhammad-Saghir-1 has done Msc in applied psychology. Currently he is doing M.phil in clinical psychology from international Islamic University Islamabad. He has keen interest in research hence he has conducted a research on depression and subsyndromal depression.

Editor: Talal Zubair

   Additionally there are many terms associated to alcohol use such as misuse, problem use, abuse and heavy use. All these terms are indicating inappropriate use of alcohol may affect physical, social, or moral wellbeing of drinker. Researches on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism state that men may be at risk for alcohol-related problems if their alcohol consumption is more than 14 standard drinks per week or 4 drinks per day. 

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Similarly consumption of more than 7 standard drinks per week or 3 drinks per day may be risky for women. Gill and Donaghy investigated that drinkers were more probable to self-pour single drink servings. Individuals may also underestimate the alcohol content of beverages because of similar classes of beverage but different in alcohol content. Therefore drinkers may be less able to estimate their consumption during a drinking episode. They may underestimate the amount of alcohol that is consumed by them. There are many factors that influence the drinking behavior. Alcohol consumption is also associated with the price of alcohol, availability of alcohol and with price elasticities as the change in demand for a product in response to a change in price. Moreover there may be other potentially changeable factors which may influence alcohol consumption and drinking rate. These include marketing signs like branding and vehicles for these signs such as the glasses from which beverages are consumed.



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