A study by University of Kentucky researchers has to set apart new energy on the usual-forming properties of popular pain medication tramadol. Prescription pain killers abuse is very important public health issue in U.S. In 2010, additional people over the age of 12 reported non medical usage of prescripted pain relievers in the previous month than utilization of cocaine and heroin. “Adviced given by many experts that pain reliever treatment misuse is an actual difficulty to deal with in Kentucky.

The study being done a double-blind, placebo-controlled structure. Participants were given one of the 12 possible dose incorporates with placebo, tramadol, naltrexone and hydromorphone. Naltrexone is an opioid receiver or blocker, which is used to force the effects of opioid medications. Following are the drug administration participants were evaluated on the basis of self-reported measurements, observer-reported measurements, ocular measurements (such as pupil dilation or relating to the eye) and performance related tasks, ten participants have completed the study.


Rabia-ZaidiMiss Rabia Zaidi  is working as a Clinical Psychologist in Willing Ways Karachi. She has graduated from highly reputed College D.A Degree College for Women (DHA) in 2011, after completing a Bachelor of Arts degree in Library & Information Science, Education and Urdu Advance with First Division and a Master’s Degree in Psychology. She is interested in Educational Activities and attended many seminars. She has attended workshop on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Youth Psychosocial Health Issues, Media: the lost healer. Stop becoming a victim of terror and Voice of Frail’s; organised by Dar-ul-Sukun.

Editor: Mr. Wakeel Murad


It was considerd that if both tramadol and hydromorphone, frequently opioid analgesic, acted similarly on nervous system, manage naltrexone would less harmful the effects of both the drugs in a similar fashion. What was found that while participants given both hydromorphone and naltrexone reported a lack of affect by the drug, patients taking tramadol and naltrexone reported that they feel “high”. Participants who received hydropmorphone or tramadol with placebo also reported feeling affected.

The complete results indicated that on measures: “liking” and “street value”, subjects rated tramadol highly, mentioning an increased capability for abuse. However, in order to reach these supportive and effective ratings, participants had to take doses well above the normal therapeutic range, and into a range in which also produced several negative and problematic side effects as: gastrointestinal disease, vomiting and feeling not condition of being well. “The utmost compelling occurrence; we all certainly seen that any kind of misconduct of tramadol or any other abuse potential tramadol had activated the opioid receptors in the brain areas and that may not be the status”.

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“Prescription pain pill abuse is a real problem in Kentucky, we have lots of extradoses. We held a meeting here in February specifically about partnering law enforcement and medicine to deal this”. The study involved Naltrexone, which blocks opoid receptors in the brain. “When we have given them placebo and the opioid receptors are not blocked, tramadol and hydromorphone make fairly similar effects. When we gave folks naltrexone and blocked the opioid receptors, hydromorphone did not make any effects, it was like we have given them placebo. It has totally blocked the effects of hydromorphone because the primary way hydromorphone works is on the opioid receptors in the brain; they are blocked so of course hydoromorphone is not going to produce an effect. With tramadol, we did not locate anywhere near the blockaded effect that we saw with hydromorphone. We need to test a higher naltrexone dosage to confirm that this is the scenario.”

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