“Schizophrenia with the dual diagnosis of addiction”
Co-morbidity or dual diagnosis, is defined by United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, if a person is diagnosed as having an alcohol or drug abuse problems in addition, usually psychiatric; e.g. mood disorder, schizophrenia; 2000. It refers to coexistence of two or more psychological disorders.
Williams explains different kinds of dual diagnosis in 2002:
- Primary mental illness: consequences of the illness leads to drugs misuse.
- Primary substance misconduct with psychiatric situations: lead to psychological symptoms, i.e; stress, depression
- Common conditions: bio/psycho/social factors. i.e; family dysfunction and conduct disorder with drug use.
Miss Rabia Zaidi is working as a Clinical Psychologist in Willing Ways Karachi. She has graduated from highly reputed College D.A Degree College for Women (DHA) in 2011, after completing a Bachelor of Arts degree in Library & Information Science, Education and Urdu Advance with First Division and a Master’s Degree in Psychology. She is interested in Educational Activities and attended many seminars.
Editor: Wakeel Murad
Krausz (1996) categorizes four dual diagnosis:
- The diagnosis of mental ailment, with a consequent dual diagnosis of substance misconduct that inauspicious effects on mental health.
- Diagnosis of drug dependency with psychiatric difficulties leading towards to mental issues.
- Co-occurrent identification of substance usage and psychiatric diseases.
- Dual diagnosis of substance utilization and mood disturbance, both resulting a traumatic experience, for example: PTSD.
In the occurance of dual diagnosis, when someone has a direct contact with a mental and substance abuse problems side by side. This classification can range from someone have mild depression because of drinking, to someone’s symptoms of bipolar disorder becoming more intense when that person uses heroin during periods of mania. A person have experienced a mental health condition may turn into drugs and alcohol in a form of self-medication to change the troubling mental health symptoms. Research shows that alcohol and other life threatening drugs only make the symptoms of mental health conditions worse, the effects of drugs on a person’s moods, thinking, brain mechanisms and behavior.
Morel (1999) compare non-specific psychiatric disorders found among addicts from complications specifically connected with drug use. Disorders among drug utilizers include:
- Anxiety disorders.
- Sleep disorders, result of depression, anxiety disorder or psychosis.
- Aggressive and violent behaviour, highlighted antisocial, psychopathic, schizophrenic or paranoid personality disorders.
- Pharmaco-psychoses evoked by hallucinogenic drugs or amphetamines;
- Chaos syndromes.
- Panic anxiety
- Obsessive compulsive disorders
- Substance abuse most dominates over any other disorder; (Buckley, Miller Lehrer, and Castle, 2009).
Researches on neuro-psychological and neuro-biological and advancement enable brain processes to visualized about the relationship between mental and physical trauma, development of brain, drug effects, stress and mental development, and addiction is directly connected to structural changes and adaptation of the brain at low and high levels (Nestler, 2001).