As human’s child comes to this world, the journey of his development has started from the day of conception of his or her zygote. After that the individual passes through different stages biological, psychological and social development. There are many theories of life span development. Hence ecological model is one of them. Human ecology theory describes the interactions of individuals with five basic systems. The Ecological Systems theory affirms that human development is influenced by the different types of environmental systems. Ecology theory was developed by famous psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner.

Muhammad-Saghir-1Muhammad Saghir has done Msc in applied psychology. Currently he is doing M.phil in clinical psychology from international Islamic University Islamabad. He has keen interest in research hence he has conducted a research on depression and subsyndromal depression.

Editor: Hameeda Batool

He developed a most differentiated and comprehensive approach to human development that focuses the contextual influences on development. It also describes that we encounter different environments that may influence our lifespan development positively or negatively based upon specific environment. Environmental influences determine our psychological health, interpersonal relationships and our habits.


Ecological systems theory states that development of a person within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of current environment. Here the biologically influenced dispositions of a child join with environmental forces to mold development, Bronfenbrenner envisions the environment as a series of nested structures, including but extending beyond the home, school, neighborhood, and workplace settings in which people spend their everyday lives. The author also states that each layer of the environment has a powerful impact on development.