Behavior is a very catchy phrase. It’s a unique set of actions which an individual shows towards the environment. Can we say that behavior is a true manifestation of human actions? Precisely if it is not true yet it’s the ultimate expression of emotions feelings and thoughts. Over the centuries, people are in the search of finding a comprehensive expression of explaining the human behavior. It starts with the eminent ancient philosophers Plato and Aristotle who gave the idea of Meta physical dualism, According to them world is divided in two aspects. One is based on material and other is a kind of spiritual in nature. Simply substances are either material or mental in their respective manifestations. From here people coined the term of material world and human mental world. Many debates were started after this and mostly people argue on the existence and non-existence of such stages or divisions. Then in Sixteen century with the rise of physical science, a mechanistic view of physical world emerged, as scientists began to see physical environment responsible for human behavior. It proved to be, but a short conceptual step to the assumptions added as voluntary and involuntary behaviors.
Voluntary behaviors were governed by the mind and involuntary behaviors were mechanical in actions. John Locke and David Hume then derive physical laws assuming that all human ideas could be explained by experience.
Given this context, it is not surprising to see that new social science, in order explain human behaviors introduced versions of physical science determinism at early stages in their disciplinary histories. In Sociology Augusta Comte and Herbiest Spence’s argued for a view of society “as an integrated whole, comparable to a physical system that determine the behavior of all members”. Emile Durkheim added by separating qualities of societies from individuals. Comparable viewpoints emerged in psychology in the forms of various behaviorisms. All of these versions were studied using cause – and – effect mechanism, Thus, human behavior and the world for the sociologist, explained by reference to society; for the anthropologist, explained by reference to culture; for a psychologist, explained by the reference to a stimulus – response frame work.
Although the approaches to study of human behavior stems from physical explanations; were highly popular in the early development of human logic. It’s no longer holding its pivotal position. It is over done by humanist, cognitive, critical science, post cultural, and post modernism approaches. Each of these to varying degree rejects the old school and redefining the modern knowledge into more precise and accurate way.
In the modern world behavior has come up with many enchanting name. Humans are more aware with the needs and wants of their utilities. If a person is provoked by the society to act in a bad way; does person then is in lieu with the Reponses caused by that action?
Psychoanalysis was introduced and developed by Freud claiming that human behavior is beyond the control of individual such that the role of free will is minimal. Then comes behaviorism; was the brain child of Watson arguing that psychology should revolves around the behavior of individual not the cognitive parameters. There are many other approaches also but these two were the fundamentals in explaining human behavior.
In response to behavior cognitive psychologists argue that mental processes, especially thinking but also perception, memory, attention are principle causes of behavior in the presence of mental factors behaviors is of no use its only the manifestation of individual thoughts.
To conclude; although psychologists do not agree on the best approaches to study of human behavior. Each of the approaches noted some merit, and it is not possible to definitively states that one is in some way inherently superior to other. A balanced response to the above overview may be to suggest that different approaches are suited to different specific problems.