As cognition plays pivotal role, people who lived with cognitive distortions deserve much attention. It’s of fundamental importance that correct thinking must be cultivated. Living in the shadow of these distortions completely nullify someone’s fawad-aly-shahexistence. It is defined as “exaggerated or irrational thought pattern’s which really over shadow the reality of patterns or events actually exists”. These cognitive distortions were first studied by Aaron.T.Beck in 1972. Basically cognitive distortions really blindfold reality. People who operate under these distortions led the foundation of a dysfunctional life. It’s really amazing to see how error in thought really disturb whole pattern of life. These distortions then become the major cause to issue related depression, anxiety and anger.

Categories of cognitive distortions are listed below:

Mind Reading and Fortune Telling:

People assume that they know what other people are thinking without sound evidence and they can predict the future of themselves or others. People suffering with these distortions tend to believe that in reality they are a failure or they will lose the job because they are really well versed in apprehending future.


People believe that what has happened or will happen will be so awful and unmatchable to anything that they will not be able to stand it. For example sense of failing at something will be unbearable.


People will assign negative characteristics to themselves and other. Labeling then become a major factor in being prejudice to something. Thinking on being undesirable or attribute others with negative captions are examples of labeling.

Discounting Positives and Negatives Filters:

In this distortion people claim that the positive accomplishments of them or others are less important. They almost focus on negatives and rarely notice anything positive. For example anything said by someone to me has only negative meaning. Or it is just of that, people are not rude to me. Minimize the positive aspect and glorify the negativity is major sign of this distortion.

Dichotomous thinking & over Generalizing:

Dichotomous thinking is easily interpreted as all or none thinking. Thinking in terms of Black & white. Concluding extreme results of giving sweeping statements. In over generalizing people develop perceptional error in which the pass the judgment on the basis on one event.


People attribute a disproportionate amount of the blame for negative events to themselves and fail to see that certain events are also caused by others. For example marriage failure, theft or things like that.  Continued on page 2……

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