Positive affirmations are a staple of the self-help industry, but there is a problem with standing in front of the mirror every morning and saying something like: "I prosper wherever I turn and I know that I deserve prosperity of all kinds." "I am my own unique self—special, creative and wonderful." Or "I will be king of the world in just five days, I just know it." It makes you feel kinda silly (and sometimes worse).

carlWhat does research show about how high achievers really think? High achievers are often marked, unsurprisingly, by a strong motive to achieve. Less accomplished individuals are often more motivated to avoid failure. Achievement motivated individuals have a strong desire to accomplish something important, and gain gratification from success in demanding tasks. Consequently they are willing to expend intense effort over long time spans in the pursuit of their goals.

As a disorder, dyslexia is associated with having difficulties in reading and writing. Although the British Psychological Society (1999) defines it as “being evident when accurate and fluent reading and or spelling develops incompletely or with great difficulty”, the definition still remains vague (McLoughlin, Leather, & Stringer, 2002) especially for adults with dyslexia. In adulthood it is difficult to determine the main consequences of being dyslexic as most of the individuals have developed coping skills and strategies by adulthood. As such, while in children the outcomes of weak literacy skills are vivid; in adults they are not that apparent.

To date, most of the research has focused on the causal models of dyslexia. Causal model is the representation of a causal theory in a particular frame work. It explains various levels of description –biological, cognitive and behavioural. In a causal model, explanation of a disorder is a function of the interaction between factors at cognitive and biological levels and from the environment (Krol, Morton & Bruyn, 2004).There are few causal models of dyslexia: basic causal model, causal model of dyslexia with phonological deficit and causal model of dyslexia with attention deficit. The basic causal model of dyslexia suggest that dyslexia is a condition with a genetic base (Pennington, 1990), resulting in brain abnormalities. These brain abnormalities affect the cognitive functions in particular the phonological coding (Galaburda, 1989).This phonological deficit in turn leads to various problems relating to speech and difficulties in learning to read (Frith, 1995).Whereas the causal model for phonological deficit suggest that a brain abnormality leads to phonological deficit  which is an inability to detect rhyme in a series of spoken words (Bradley & Bryant, 1978) which in turn leads to poor reading poor phoneme awareness and poor naming speed (Frith, 1995).Lastly the causal model of dyslexia with attention deficit theory suggest that brain abnormality results in phonological deficit as well as attention deficit. This attention deficit results in poor learning which in turn results in poor graph phoneme awareness resulting in poor reading as well as poor school achievement ( Frith, 1995).

At present the most dominant of all the causal models is of deficit in phonological awareness. Dyslexia is considered to be due to poor phonological awareness. Poor phonological awareness is an inability to detect rhyme in a series of spoken words, which in turn, results in difficulties in speech perception hence difficulties in reading and writing (Bradley & Bryant, 1978). Additionally, research has proposed that genetics has the role to play as well. Previous research has revealed that dyslexia is genetically inherited as 6 predisposing genes have been indentifies showing the effect on dyslexia, with high familial risk rates from 35 % to 45 % (Smith, Pennington, Roetter & Ing, 1990).



  2. Ali Khan