'Smoking Vaccine' blocks Nicotine in Mice Brain
By knowing enough about risks of nicotine people aren’t quitting tobacco because of their addiction to nicotine. Most nicotine or tobacco addicts try to quit addiction their own but they cannot maintain it for long run, eventually all efforts end in smoke. Even though there are different treatment models such as counseling and behavioural therapies that can increase the rate of abstinence. Additionally, pharamacotherapies such as nicotine replacement products, bupropion and the recently approved varenicline, help smokers to quit smoking. Hence tobacco is the most commonly used addictive drug in the world. Although the increasing efforts to decrease and prevent smoking, tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable disease and death. There are 250 chemicals in Cigarette smoke which are known to be toxic and smoking is the most significant source of preventable disease and premature death worldwide. The World Health Organization reports that there are 1.2 billion smokers globally and 5 million die annually because of tobacco. Lung cancer, coronary heart disease, chronic lung disease, and strokes are the main reason for a lethal outcome. Smoking is not only dangerous to individuals; it also results in staggering costs to society. In the USA, the total annual economic expenses associated with nicotine addiction were estimated to be $157.7 billion.
Muhammad Saghir has done Msc in applied psychology. Currently he is doing M.phil in clinical psychology from international Islamic University Islamabad. He has keen interest in research hence he has conducted a research on depression and subsyndromal depression.
Editor: Samreen Masud
According to an estimate seventy percent of smokers are willing to stop, in spite of recent advances in behavioral and pharmacologic treatments, majority of them relapsed in old habits. Because they caught by addictive component “nicotine” leaves by an alkaloids. An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and animals.
There are number of nicotine-replacement therapies which are currently used to support those who want to quit, such as nicotine gum, inhaler, nasal spray or transdermal patches, and treatment with the antidepressant bupropion. Yet, both treatments only moderately improve long-term smoking-cessation rates along with behavioural intervention. Despite intensive efforts for its eradication, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem.
Drug addiction is defined as a disease state in which the body develops physical dependence leading to compulsive and repetitive use in spite of negative consequences to the health of user, mental state or social life. Addiction also impairs the general areas of functionality. There are various psychoactive substances such as cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and amphetamines having ability to cross the blood-brain barrier when ingested. Addiction is based on complex neural adaptations develop with different routes depending on the substance, frequency of use, means of ingestion, intensity of pleasure and the genetic and psychological susceptibility of individual.